Getting Started Worm Farm Composting

Getting started worm farm composting doesn’t have to be complicated. All you really need are the basics of worm composting trivia, and a little interest in gardening or recycling. Some of the most common questions and answers about worm composting follow.

Mature worms can consume as much as their own body weight every day. But what do they eat and how do they prefer to eat it? Worms can consume many of the same foods we eat, and lots of other biodegradable items as well. They will feed faster if you shred, mash or blend food scraps since these will make a more digestible mix that is easily consumed by the worms. Yard clippings, non-acidic leaves, organic garden waste, are fair game as well. Also, maintain worm bed temperature at around 23-25 degrees Celsius, since this temperature best matches their metabolism and the worms feed better. Also, avoid acidic foods, since it upsets the worms’ digestive system. Things you may also want to avoid feeding your worms include manure, onions, citrus fruits or peelings, garlic, garden waste sprayed with insecticides, dairy products like milk and cheese or meat. Salts are another taboo as this can wipe out an entire bed.

Worms tend to thrive in cool, damp or moist environments. So, should one water the worm bed regularly? Watering the beds will enhance the production of liquid fertilizer, but make sure not to pour too much water into it or it could drown the worms. The food wastes are about 80% water, which is released as the worms break them down. If you spray or add water to the worm bed every couple of weeks, be sure to just add water only to the point of getting the worm bed damp and cool. By doing it this way, you will have a constant supply of liquid fertilizer. If your beds are over-watered or it’s raining, your worms will tend to gather on the top or lid of the bed to avoid drowning. Simply relocate or shelter the worm beds, and mix in some dry material and return or mix the worms back into the bedding.

On the other hand, if the worms never seem to work or rise to the tops of the trays, the reason may be because you may have added new food before the worms have consumed the previous feeding batch. Worms have the instinct to stay with leftover food and will not search for a new food source until they consume what food is presently available. In this light also, before you add new trays, stop feeding the worms for at least five days to ensure all existing food has been consumed. Another consideration is that the level of castings in the working tray needs to be high enough for the worms to pass easily up to the next tray. You’ll get a feel for this as you go.

Worms can tolerate a temperature range between 10-30 degrees Celsius. If temperatures of your worm beds get hotter than these levels, move the beds into a shady, cool area, and regulate the moisture and humidity of the worm boxes to further control the bed temperature. A simple cooking thermometer stuck into the soil of the bed should help keep you safe.

In cold temperatures, you should cover the worm beds with old garments or carpets, blankets and wool shavings to help keep the bed temperatures in range. In the colder climates, you mat consider bringing your beds indoors to a porch or outbuilding. In Nature, worms go deep to avoid winter temperatures and freezing. Since your beds do not allow them to go down say seven or ten feet or more, you must compensate. Another trick is to feed the worms at least a quarter more than normal, since more food digested by the worms allow for more heat being generated in their bodies.

Worms tend to self-regulate their population with any given or available space and the amount of food administered to them. So, if you plan on growing your operation or harvesting the worms themselves, you’ll want to do so by regulating the size of your worm beds and their number.

Keeping these tips and hints in mind will help get you started successfully in worm farm composting.

Organic gardening, going green, recycling, and being self-sufficient are just a few of the reasons our society is seeking and rediscovering forgotten skills and knowledge. Find out more about worm farm compost and worm farms at Worm Farm Compost or at A Worm Farm.

How Green Can You Be

Are you really concerned about the environment? Maybe you should consider a veggie patch.

Growing your own food is on the edge of becoming trendy. As more people become switched on to thinking “green”, interest in home vegetable gardens increases. Growing vegetables and fruit at home minus pesticides and food miles is one of the best ways to help the environment and also directly benefit your health. Once vegetable gardens become established your enjoyment of your home-grown produce will become motivation in itself.

For people in the know, growing some of your own vegetables and fruit seems an obvious and simple way to help our environment. Yet according to the National Gardening Association only 31% of U.S. households participate in food gardening. What’s in it for you if you take up vegetable gardening? The personal benefits include better health, cheaper produce and the satisfaction of knowing that you’re genuinely making a positive difference to the environment.

Maintaining a home vegetable garden enables you to help the environment in numerous ways.

You can set up a semi-closed system which recycles your kitchen waste into compost (and possibly chook food).
Tip debris can be re-used as gardening containers, greenhouse frames, vegetable bed borders and various other creative gardening solutions.
Gathering your food just steps from your back door reduces food miles.
Organic gardening methods embrace sustainability and biodiversity and provide you with guaranteed pesticide-free produce.

Perhaps the most enjoyable personal benefit of vegetable gardening is just how good your home-grown vegetables and fruit taste. There’s really a huge difference in flavour between a shop-bought and home-grown tomato. Picking your own food fresh just five minutes before you eat it can give you a real kick.

Starting a vegetable garden needn’t be an overwhelming task. If you launch into a full scale veggie patch, then yes, you’ll need to devote significant time and effort to the project in order to set it up well. However, you can start as simply as growing greens in a large container, planting a self-pollinating fruit tree or sprouting mung beans in a jar on your kitchen bench. It all counts.

More vegetable gardening tips can be found at www.growingraw.com.

Trina Cleary is the editor of the Growing Raw Healthy Eating Guide. Copyright: you may freely republish this article, provided the text, author credit, the active links and this copyright notice remain intact.

Quality Tomatoes Soil Preparation Makes The Difference For When Should I Plant Tomatoes

The goal is for the soil to be in the best shape, so no matter if you are planting tomatoes from seeds, or in transplanting nursery grown plants, the adjustment period for the new seeds to germinate and the roots to take hold is minimal. For successful tomatoes, soil preparation is the first step. Two tomato gardening tips come to mind to help the plants grow and to plan when should I plant tomatoes based onsoil conditions. You will have to find a good balance between the two. One tomato growing tip is about cultivation and the other tip is about the weather.

Your Tomatoes: Soil Preparation and Cultivation Tips

The soil must be turned over and worked down to a nice manageable consistency. You can do this with a tiller, going back and forth five or six times or for smaller gardens old fashioned shoveling will do. If you use the shovel you need to turn it over a couple times until all the clumps are gone and then hack at it with shovels, hoes and rakes until you get it looking good. A raised bed is a great plan for tomatoes as the soil stays looser and is easier to deal with in the spring.

Yes, adding fertilizer at this point is also a good thing, Tomatoes like manure, and you can buy bags of composted manure to work into the soil. One thing to know about when I should plant tomatoes is to wait a day between adding any organic fertilizer to the soil and planting your seeds or plants.

Your Tomatoes: Soil Preparation and The Weather

Even when your soil is primed and ready to go the weather affect the condition of your soil and it will by default affect when I should plant tomatoes. It does not matter if you are growing tomatoes from seed or transplanting from a nursery pack, any soil that is too wet or too dry will not serve you well. If it is too dry the seeds will not germinate or the roots will not take to the soil. If it is too wet the both the seeds and roots will rot. One of the tomato gardening problems either way, is that thedirt gets all hard and sometimes clumpy again, so you will have to use you hoe.

At this point in planting tomatoes, soil preparation is more waiting game. For dry soil you need to run the sprinkler for several hours and wait for it to seep in, possible the next day before planting, and then keep it moist until the next rain. For wet soil due to rain, you wait until it dries out enough before planting your tomatoes.

Finding a good blend with these two issues for your tomatoes soil preparation will help you get your plant off to a good start on the road to the best, plump, juicy tomatoes for your salads and sandwiches all summer.

From the day you first take theshovel to theground, through harvesting, everyone can use some extra help and advice with some expert tomato gardening tips and advice.

Click to Find out Secrets to Growing Incredible Tomatoes

Look for some free guides and other valuable information to help you grow some nice, juicy, tasty tomatoes!

Your Tomatoes Soil Preparation

10 Easy Ways To Go Green This Week

Every person on our planet has a responsibility for helping to conserve the environment. It’s important that we all work together to help combat climate change by lowering our carbon footprint. Thankfully, making the switch to environmentally-friendly or “green living” is becoming simpler. Consider these ten tips for greening up your life this upcoming week.

(1) Become a diligent recycler. Recycle all newspapers, junk mail, envelopes, used office paper, aluminum cans, glass bottles, plastic bottles and cardboard boxes. Go beyond basic recycling and make sure that you recycle batteries, cell phones and unusable computers.

(2) Pursue organic gardening and purchase plants, flowers, and shrubs that are native to your geographical area. Organic gardening is becoming increasingly popular, as people become more aware about the destructive effects of pesticides and insecticides. Think about growing your own organic vegetables and herbs.

(3) Conserve water. When you are brushing your teeth, turn off the water. Purchase a water-saving toilet. Buy your family a water-efficient shower head.

(4) Conserve considerable amounts of energy in your kitchen and laundry room by purchasing an energy-saving, sometimes labeled as “Energy Star” dishwasher, refrigerator, microwave, oven, washer and dryer.

(5) Be careful about turning off the lights when the room is not being used. Teach your spouse or partner and children to get into the healthy habit of turning off the lights when they leave a room, too.

(6) Change the temperature settings of your refrigerator and freezer. Many families consume untold amounts of energy and money by leaving their refrigerator and freezer at temperatures that are colder than necessary.

(7) Purchase organic fruits and vegetables whenever you can to help reduce the amount of pesticides and herbicides that your family unintentionally consumes. Aim to shop at local farmers’ markets, as they often sell wonderfully fresh, high-quality organic produce. Shopping locally is very important in helping to reduce your carbon footprint. An additional benefit is that you are supporting local small businesses.

(8) Think about slowly converting to a more plant-based, vegetarian diet. Many vegetarians cite environmental reasons as primary motivating factors for their animal-friendly lifestyle. Eat vegetarian at least one day per week. Tremendous amounts of water, grain and land are used to graze cattle. An alarming percentage of rainforests are destroyed by companies to graze livestock.

(9) Purchase eco-friendly, reusable cotton grocery bags. Many grocery stores are selling fashionable reusable bags for only a few dollars each. The problem with plastic bags, and all plastic products, is that they do not biodegrade in landfills. The problem with paper grocery bags is that is requires more trees to be cut down.

(10) Convert your home from traditional light bulbs to compact fluorescent light bulbs, commonly known by the acronym CFLs. Although the cost more than regular light bulbs, your family will end up saving money on your electricity bills. A plus is that CFLs usually last ten times longer than traditional bulbs.

Suzanne Bucciarelli is the owner of Green Living Ezine and writes articles and tips on how to save money and go green at the same time. Read Over 125 Ways to Go Green and Save Money at Green Living Ezine.

Lawn Care Tips Different Lawn Care Approaches

Lawn Care Tips – different approaches and fertilizers for looking after your lawn…

Over the years, different approaches have been developed for looking after lawns and turf grasses. Some of these approaches are varied and influenced by people who are agenda driven by the “environmental” and “green” movement, or on the other hand, some approaches are influenced by people or organisations that want to maximise the returns on investment for investors and shareholders.

Broadly these approaches are divided into 2 main camps: the organic approach versus the inorganic approach.

The organic approach is based on the premise that effective weed control and fertilisation is achieved with the use of organic products only. These organic products include corn gluten used both as a means of pre-emergent weed control and also as a fertilizer. Organic lawn care is the method of establishing and caring for the lawn (and garden) using organic horticultural methods including the dispensing of all organic pesticides and fertilizers. Organic lawn care relies on teaching the elements of physical maintenance including correct watering, mowing and soil management.

The inorganic approach to Lawn Care is based on the premise that effective weed control is brought about with the control of weeds using herbicide sprays. Once weeds are controlled the lawn is given a “leg up” with synthetic fertilisers to become more robust and dense. With a healthier lawn the weeds find it difficult to out-compete the turf grass. After this, the lawn needs only a maintenance (top-up) of fertilizer / food to keep it healthy and strong – and maybe the odd weed needs to be sprayed or just pulled out.

Our opinion (here in Australia) is the lawn that combines the inorganic approach with the correct physical and cultural methods of good lawn care far out-performs a lawn using organic lawn care. The lawn’s end result after using inorganic fertilizers is far superior to the alternative – if you are un-convinced just ask any greenkeeper or golf course superintendent!

What are the Best Compost Materials for Your Compost Pile

This is the topic of our new gardening blog poll. The choices range from: bird droppings, seaweed, horse manure and more. Please drop by and submit your vote. The poll and subsequent posts regarding composting, compost piles, compost tumblers, how to make a compost pile, starting a compost pile, how to make a compost bin, ect., will also be posted at www.mygardentips.net

They say that plants in Hawaii grow unbelievably in fast and furious. Is there a connection to the volcanic material in the soil?

Build your Own Compost or just Buy Compost?

Should we just give in and buy our compost from the local nursery, or build it yourself? I suppose the answer lies in whether or not you have place for a compost bin. If you do, I’d recommend making it yourself. If you don’t, research your local market, in search of the perfect compost. Ask at your local farmer’s market, as you’ll have a better chance of finding affordable home-made compost. Let’s assume you do have space in your garden for composting… the next question is: Should I build it myself or buy a ready-made compost tumbler?

Compost Tumbler or Compost Pile?

Ready-made has its advantages, but home-built is my choice personally, despite its disadvantages. There’s just no substitute for this natural recycling experience. What are the basic steps in building your own compost pile? How does one go about starting a composting pile?

What to put in your Compost Pile?

Actually, the real question should be, what don’t you put in it? The answer to that is simple: Don’t put in cat or dog droppings, or any type of meat. That makes it pretty simple. Put in everything else, like grass clippings, manure, straw, leaves, fruit and vegetable refuse, coffee grounds, seaweed, even ripped up newspapers. How’s that for recycling? The basic rule is 1 part green stuff to 20 parts inorganic stuff, like the leaves or newspaper. Remember to cover your live stuff with the dead stuff, so it doesn’t stink too much, and this also aids in the aeration and decomposition. Once a week or so, mix up the compost pile so that air and dry materials gets mixed in. The easiest method is to remember to cover your mushy organic materials with enough shredded paper or dead leaves, each time you throw in your kitchen scraps. For more Spring Time Tips, visit the no-crank site or gardening tips blog.

Dan is a writer for Hydro Industries. To learn more vist: No-Crank.com

10 Steps to a Simple No Dig Garden

Let’s say you’ve just moved into a new home and although you have space in the sunshine for growing your own vegetables you have poor topsoil and you don’t want to break your back digging it over.

There are many variations on this no dig garden routine but here’s a simplified version for those who are faced with a poor site and want to get an organic garden going quickly and cheaply from readily available materials.

You need to end up with a large timber box open at the bottom and around 15 inches (40cm) high. Position this in a sunny spot away from shady trees.

Here’s how you do it:

Clear away the old veggie garden (if there is one) to make way for a new bed built entirely from salvaged timber.
Take 4 hardwood planks approximately 6ft (200cm) in length and 15 inches (40cm) deep.
Assemble them into a box.
Drill pilot holes into each end and drive in the screws. The timber will be tough to work with so drive the screw in half-way, then reverse,  then drive it back in.
Coat the inside with a wood preserver safe for growing food crops.
Start filling with ordinary sand from the backyard or wherever you can find it.
Line the bed with weed matting or plastic, making sure the material goes across the frame and up the sides to stop grass roots from finding their way in.
Add a mix of topsoil, manure, compost, mineral based fertilizer.
Water it all in.
Start planting.

The great thing about this garden is that if you need to move house again you can easily disassemble the structure and carry it with you.

Encourage the earthworm

Earthworms are tireless aerators of your soil. They create tunnels which carry water right to the root of the plants which also helps make sure heavy rain can run away easily. The friendly worm loves to eat fungi and harmful insects, and when he’s done he leaves a ‘casting’ from his digestive system which is a great garden fertilizer. When the worm’s life is over his body also turns into valuable fertilizer rich in nitrogen.

If your compost heap is in good shape the worms will breed right there and when you transfer compost to your garden bed they will happily colonize the new environment, contributing to the health and vitality of both soil and plants.

Plant a mix of vegetables herbs and flowers

Vegetables, herbs and flowers can flourish together in a very limited space. Flowers and herbs provide color and fragrance and your vegetables will benefit from the companionship of plants that scare troublesome insect pests away.  For example, marigolds are a great insect repellent that add wonderful color to your garden and send come-hither messages to the bees.

Janet Hall likes to promote organic gardening as a way of life. She believes that anyone can grow a good supply of food even with limited space. Visit her site to get started building your own organic garden, or take the mini-course at Organic Garden Guideto learn more and discover many great resources.

How to control weeds in the garden

Hints & Tips for weed control in the garden

One: Get to work on weeds as soon as they appear. Try not to let them flower as this means they’re there for the long haul!

Two: Cover empty ground with mulches and a suitable weed control fabric. This will prevent weeds from growing in the first place.

Three: Ready to use weed killers are the most convenient as no mixing is needed. For large areas, choose one with a nozzle.

Four: If the weeds have flowered then put the roots in the bin, otherwise they’ll find a way back to your garden.

Five: If you’re struggling for time, make sure you remove flowering weeds first to prevent them setting seed.

What is weed control fabric?

DIY Matters Weed Control Fabric is a black UV stable nonwoven material, specially designed as a porous, breathable weed suppressing membrane for use under organic mulch, decorative gravel, bark or for lining planters in the garden.

Weed Control Fabric only lets water and nutrients through to your plants, whilst suppressing the growth of unwanted weeds.

Weed Fabric helps to keep the ground moist and protects from extreme temperatures, whilst reducing the need for watering of plants.

Where can I use Weed Control Fabric?

DIY Matters Weed Control is ideal for borders, flower beds, under decking and gravel paths.

It can be finished with bark, mulch, light weight gravel or slate to enhance your outside living space.

What roll sizes is Weed Fabric available in?

Weed control fabric’s come in a variety of sizes.

1m x 10m
1m x 15m
1m x 20m
1m x 50m
1m x 100m
2m folded to 1m x 10m
2m folded to 1m x 20m
2m folded to 1m x 50m
2m folded to 1m x 100m

How do I install Weed Control Fabric?

Step One
Prepare the ground, remove any stones and make sure the area is free from weeds. Rake the soil to a smooth surface.

Step Two
Roll out the weed control fabric over the area & cut to size. For large areas please ensure that there is a 75mm (3″) overlap.
Secure any overlaps with ground pegs.

Step Three
For new plants, cut a cross in the material and pin back where you intend to place the plant. Dig out the soil below and prepare the ground as instructed. Return the Weed Control as close to the base of the plant as possible.

Step Four

Cover with at least 50mm (2″) of bark or mulch.
The fabric can be cut around existing plants, shrubs or trees and underneath hedges.

DIY Matters, a company set up as a subsidiary to one of the largest UK suppliers of non woven landscaping materials. This gives DIY Matters unique access to the finest, most innovative gardening fabrics sourced world wide at unbeatable prices, offering you wholesale prices delivered direct to your door. We have a complete range of weed membrane and driveway control, woven ground cover and Geo-textile ground stabilisation materials supplemented by frost protection fleece and a range of handy DIY and gardening wipes. Added to this is a BBA accredited weathertight roofing membrane and a range of damp proof membrane polythene products. This diverse range is sourced with quality and value for money in mind, ready to be converted and packaged in a UK factory, to offer the best service and flexibility.

What Is S.E.O Search Engine Optimization A Beginners Guide And Tips

Within the next few paragraphs I want to lay bare a few details about S.E.O that will be of benefit to the online new guy. There is not going to be too much jargon but rather more plain English that a beginners guide and tips should contain.

At the end of the article you will have a basic understanding of S.E.O that you can start using today.

So What Is Search Engine Optimization

This quite simply is strategies and ideas that you use to boost your website, blog etc to a more higher profile on the internet.

There are certain rules and guidelines that S.E ( Search Engines) have in place to determine where your website etc should be placed in the rankings on the internet.

S.E such as Google, Yahoo, Bing all have these criterias that should be met if you ever want to have a great positon in the rankings. And having a great ranking is what its all about. The higher you are then the more people will see your site when they type in a query in the search box.

Now its not the be all and end all to have a high ranking, there are lots of other ways to be visible on the net such as Pay Per Click which will get you a great ranking if your prepared to pay for it but that’s another story.

No, your long term goal should really be to get as much visibility as you can for your website through what is commonly known as the Organic listings and to do this you need to use at least some S.E.O.

What Are These Criterias

Good question and a question that nobody truly knows the answer to or at least does not know the exact formula to employ for perfect S.E.O.

Take Google for example. They use what is known as Algorithms to determine the rank of your site. Some say these are incredibly technical and others say its very basic but one thing we do know for sure is that Google every now and then will change the way it works. Meaning what S.E.O works today might not be as important tomorrow.

If you do a search on the net for best S.E.O you will be overwhelmed with all sorts of advice that often contradicts each other in a language that makes no sense to the novice.

What Do You Recommend Then?

Without going into a detailed analysis of what you should be doing I have instead outlined a few steps you should be taking to keep the likes of Google and Yahoo happy. They are certainly not the only ones but for a beginner they are great to start with and they will give great results too.

1) If you were to do one thing and one thing only then concentrate on your content. Make the content of your website or blog or article etc to be highly valuable to the customer or reader.

You see S.E want to give there customers, the people doing the search, the best time possible and showing them great content that matches their search query is how they do it.

So concentrate on this as your number 1 priority

2) Keep what ever your doing to a fairly tight theme. If your blog is about gardening then keep all content to gardening. If your website relates to financial markets then stick to this. A site that offers too much diversity is one that the S.E will have difficulty in deciding where to put it.

3) Keywords. Choose some words that will be mentioned more than others within your content. These words known as keywords will be the common thread throughout your site.

If you have a site with a theme around motor racing then a good keywords might be Formula 1, Michael Shumacher, Ferrari etc. When you use specific keywords and they are predominant within your site then its easy for people to find you when they do a search and easier for S.E to recommend you.

This really all goes back to you keeping a tight theme, one where the user and the search engine can quickly decide what it is all about. When you have this then you have something the S.E are happy to promote for you.

4) Links. You will always hear people talk about getting great links. Links are basicly when someone places your website address on their site. This says to the S.E that for someone to do this must mean that your site is worth looking at otherwise why would that person put a link on their site if yours was rubbish. Now you can place links on your own site leading to others but make sure there of a decent quality, that is the site they lead to is a good one. And try not too have links linking back to you that come from poor sites all of this will just harm your ranking rather than improving it.

Thats It For Now

What information you have here is sufficient to be making use of especially when just starting out. Of course I have not gone into the exact details, this article is just to outline some ideas but it should be enough for you to make large improvements to your page ranking just be patient and persistent.

 

 

 

For more advice on S.E.O visit http://nick-squires.com or if your looking for help building your business online then visit http://bizz-help.info  

Tips for Spring Planting

Installing new plants and getting them to grow successfully seriously isn’t complicated, neither is it as complicated as many would prefer you to to believe. Is it as simple as digging a hole and setting the plant in.
Balled in burlap (B and B).Closely look at the ball around the plant that you have bought. Did the diggers wrap twine around the ball to hold the plant safely? As long as they have, you should at least cut the twine and lay it in the base of the hole, or get rid of it totally. Pay close consideration around the stem of the plant where it emerges at the root ball, diggers often wrap the twine around the stem a number of times as they tie the ball. It’s tremendously important because if the string is nylon, it will not rot and will choke and kill the plant two or three years down the line. 
Once B and B plants are kept at the nursery for extended durations of time it results in being necessary to re-burlap them if the underside begins to deteriorate before the plants are sold. If the plant you purchase is re-burlaped it’s always likely that there will be nylon strings between to both layers of burlap, check the stem cautiously. Provided the nylon string is detached from around the stem of the plant, it it is actually harmless around the rest of the ball, and you do not need to remove it. 
What kind of soil do you think you’re planting in? If your soil is heavy clay, I would suggest that you lift the planting bed a minimum of 8″ with good rich topsoil. If you can’t do this for any reason, bed in the plant to ensure that at least 2″ or more of the root ball is above the present ground and mound the soil over the root ball. Take into account that plants installed using this method may dry out over the summer time, but planting them flush with your soil in heavy clay can mean that the roots will likely be too damp at other times of the year. 
The specialists propose that when planting in clay soil you dig the hole wider and deeper than the root ball and fill up around and under the plant with slack organic substance. This seems like a very great idea doesn’t it? A few of these professionals also advocate you ought to dig the hole extra deep and put one or two inches of gravel in the bottom for drainage. Where do they imagine this water is going to drain to? It will actually sit in the base of the hole. 
When water reaches our freshly planted tree surrounded by loose organic matter, it’s going to seep in until the planting hole is absolutely full of water. Through the use of this planting procedure we’ve actually developed what is known as a French drain around our poor tiny plant which cannot tolerate its roots being starved of oxygen for extended periods of time. Because the bottom of this hole is clay, despite the fact that we have added gravel for drainage, there is nowhere for that water to travel so it lays in the bottom of the hole, this starves the plant of oxygen which means that it is likely to suffer and porbably die. 
If you can’t lift the planting bed using topsoil, and you are planting in clay, I suggest that you just install the root ball at least 2″ above ground and backfill around the ball with the soil that you just removed whenever you dug the hole. Backfilling with the clay soil that you just removed is actually like building a dam to keep excess water from permeating the root ball of the newly planted tree. The plant isn’t likely to flourish in such a poor soil, but at the least it may have the chance to survive.
Container grown plants are much less difficult.Follow the rules for depth of planting as described previously in this article. Before gently removing the plant from the container check the drainage holes at the bottom of your container for roots that may  be growing out of the holes. If there is any, cut them off so they do not allow it to become complicated to get the plant out of the container. 
Inspect the root mass whilst you hold it in your hand. Occasionally when plants have been growing within a container for an extended time the roots start growing in a circular pattern round the root mass. This is just not good, and you must agitate these roots prior to planting in order to break this circular pattern. You should take a knife and actually make about three vertical slices at the top of the root mass towards the bottom. This can stimulate new roots which will grow outward into the soil of your garden. Or you may just use your fingers and loosen the roots which are circling the root mass forcing them outward before you start planting them.

I have always had the gardens of my properties that I own maintained by identical gardener london company and over the years they’ve saved me a lot of my cash, just by giving me some very useful advise.